Coal basin rocks have different individual geo-mechanical properties. This makes accurate prediction of the mechanical behavior using conventional rock failure criteria difficult or even impossible. In this paper, the application of conventional rock failure criteria for mechanical behavior and mechanisms of failure of these rocks are studied. Tri-axial compressive test data is then introduced; this is a new local rock failure criterion based on mechanical behavior of coal basin rocks. Using uncertainty statistical criterion, the accuracy and efficiency of this new local rock failure criterion are compared with other rock failure criteria. The results show that although determination of constants of this new criterion have some limits, it allows for a more precise prediction of the mechanical behavior of coal basin rocks when compared with other rock failure criteria. Prediction of this new criterion that is particularly developed for coal basin rocks is not only more than other criteria but also can be used for any rock engineering design in coal mines.